Nigeria: Social sector financing and dwindling donors’ resources

By Abubakar Jimoh

The rebasing of Nigeria’s GDP has projected the nation as a middle income economy resulting in consequent dwindling donors’ resources with the effect that by 2022 the country will witness reduction in availability of grants and more external funds that can be accessed through higher interest loans.

Efforts at providing an enabling platform for inter legislative Committees dialogue to interact in proffering holistic solutions to the current trend and challenges confronting adequate and sustainable social sector financing coupled with the need to harness and strengthen domestic resources for social sector financing in the face of dwindling funding led to a one-day retreat for National Assembly Members organised by House of Representatives Committee on Appropriation in conjunction with Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC) recently in Abuja.

Giving his opening address, the Executive Director of CISLAC, Auwal Ibrahim Musa (Rafsanjani) noted that the Retreat was primarily triggered by the current but unpleasant trend arising from pervasive dwindling donors’ resources, which without pretence leaves Nigeria as one of the major beneficiaries with a challenge and no option than to proactively brainstorm, provoke critical discussions and harness potential for domestic resource mobilisation for sustainable social sector financing to inform appropriate legislative decisions and policy directions in Nigeria.

As adequate and sustainable financing for social sector remains paramount to achieve healthy, secured and developed society, the Executive Director recounted the Nigeria’s ailing health, agriculture and education sectors that have hitherto suffered from inadequate financing, warning that though “donor resources play an integral role in complementing Nigerian governments’ efforts in social sector financing, however, we must as well not lose sight to acknowledge the present reality and proffer holistic measures to avert the detrimental impacts dwindling donors’ resources may pose to our nation’s social sector investment and development”.

He noted: “While the fundamental purpose of humanitarian aid by any government is to support the efforts of a receiving nation at revitalising her social sector as well as uplifting the poor from extreme poverty, which renders them incapacitated to attain self-reliance and effectively fight diseases, the present dwindling donors’ resources, if not instantly matched with concrete legislative and policy measures will without doubt revert existing achievements and backpedal development of our nation’s social sector.

The CISLAC’s boss provided an exclusive narration of the current development in donors’ resources to Nigeria, when he reveals: “It is no more news that the rebasing of Nigeria’s GDP has firmed up the nation’s position as an emerging market economy. However, in the wake of GDP re-basing, Nigeria is fast witnessing down-slopping trend in donors’ resources, practically buttressed by the recent international decisions to withdraw funding for social sector like the European Union (EU) which specifically withdraws financial support for Nigeria, saying the country has enough resources to meet her developmental needs; Global Alliance for Vaccine Initiative (GAVI) which runs out by 2020 with potentially 7.5million children losing access to live-saving vaccines annually; United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) warning governments to take full responsibility of their respective nutrition financing while their refusal may lead to another 2.5 million severely acute malnourished children and grossly intensify child mortality in the country.”

He did not conceal the similar and most recent development from proposed international aid cut by the United States, stating that if such executed without proactive national measures, will constitute additional challenge to the development of Nigeria’s social sector financing.

The Chairman House Committee on Appropriation, Hon. Mustapha Bala Dawaki in his goodwill message urged concerted efforts by relevant stakeholders towards local production of immunisation vaccine to reduce high financial burden associating with vaccine procurement which constitutes the a major component of donors’ support in Nigeria, calling for a strengthen collaboration between executive and legislature arms to support and fast-track the process.

He said the continued mono-economic practice and lack of innovation in domestic resource mobilisation with particular focus on oil revenue had discouraged the nation’s capacity and efforts at diversifying and effectively harnessing domestic resources for financing social sector.

Also, lamenting delay and inadequate release of appropriated funds which remain systemic challenges to resource mobilisation, allocation and utilisation for the social sector development in the country, the Chairman House Committee on Finance, Hon. Babangida Ibrahim urged increased domestic financial priority for key sectors of the economy to mitigate wastage and shortfall in resource mobilisation and allocation for adequate and sustainable social sector financing.

The Director-General, Budget Office of the Federation, Mr. Ben Akabueze added that while the rebasing of Nigeria’s GDP has projected the country as a middle income economy with propensity for incessant dwindling donors’ resources, by 2022 there will be decreased availability of grants with more external funds that can be accessed through higher interest loans.

He revealed that a Technical Committee has been constituted by the Budget and Planning Office will critically observe, analyse, and address the impacts of Nigeria’s transition from lower to middle income status.

“After the rebasing, Nigeria was rated a Middle Income country, meaning that Nigeria should be able to take care of its own. By the year 2022, Nigeria will bear the full cost of vaccines formerly funded by GAVI. Most donors’ resources are already on their way out. Therefore we must take cognizance of this fact,” the Director-General explained.

Mr. Vishal Gujadhur, Lead Presenter also Senior Program Officer, Development Policy and Finance in USA noted that though in 2010, while Nigeria’s GDP almost doubled with per capita income much higher than originally thought, it as well showed untapped revenues from non-oil sectors and weakness in the nation’s revenue mobilisation.

He said: “As countries grow wealthier, donors begin assessing whether a country can pay its own way. With a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of $2,450, Nigeria is now squarely a lower middle income country (LMIC). It continues to receive significant concessional funding – for example from the World Bank, Gavi, and bilateral donors like DFID.

“When a country is above the ‘threshold’, it will be ‘graduated’ from assistance. In 2016 Nigeria fully exited the ADF which is the concessional window of the AfDB – a marker of things to come.”

The Senior Program Officer observed that based on Official Development Assistance (ODA), between 2011 and 2015, Nigeria received an average of $2.9 billion in aid flows. To size this figure, he recalled that ODA inflows in 2015 at $3.2bn were more than total government expenditure on education.

“Nigeria graduated from ADF in 2015, entered the accelerated transition phase of Gavi in 2017 and is projected to stop receiving Gavi and International Development Association (IDA) funding by 2022. More than 80% of these flows come from a few institutions – IDA, Global Fund, USAID, DfID, and Gavi. This means the graduation policies of a few institutions will have a significant impact on Nigeria’s aid flows.

Nigeria’s top 3 bilateral donors – USA, France and the UK – make up more than 80% of total bilateral aid in-flows. Recent political trends in these countries, and more nationalist leaning policies will impact aid flows. The US is already due to scale back its aid according to the 2018 budget proposed by President Trump. DfID current five year plan (through 2020) has this current plan as the last “full” one for Nigeria,” Gujadhur added.

He warned that since Nigeria has crossed the eligibility threshold for both IDA and GAVI which combined amounted to about $1.1bn, 34% total 2015 ODA flows, crossing the eligibility threshold would raise high expectation of Nigeria to graduate from these sources of funding soon. “Nigeria will lose the equivalent of 10% of 2016 FGN revenue.”

Gujadhur argued that though on an aggregate level Nigeria is not as dependent on aid, however, on sectoral level, Nigeria is more dependent on aid, given the significant concentration of aid flows across health, population policies, education and agriculture. “This means that the impact of transition will be felt more in these specific sectors if not so much at the aggregate level. Transition preparation would therefore require a more targeted approach.

An uncoordinated aid transition will impact Nigeria’s primary health care and the government would be unable to achieve the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (ERGP)’s goal of revitalizing primary health care in Nigeria. Some sub-sectors, like vaccines and family planning, are at particular risk without proper planning,” he cautioned.

The ERGP in the analysis of Ministry of Budget and National Planning, articulates Nigeria’s vision for the country for the period 2017-2020, and lays the foundation for long-term growth, primarily to optimise local content and empower local businesses. The plan stipulates the role of government in facilitating, enabling and supporting the economic activities of businesses. It articulates the strategy for aligning fiscal, monetary and trade policies. The plan outlines relevant policy instruments to promote import substitution and export promotion.

Similarly in agriculture, Gujadhur observed that between 2012 and 2015 ODA inflows averaged 75% of FGN budget to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural development and even surpassed Ag budget in 2014. He said an uncoordinated transition could impact the economy especially given that agriculture has been a strong driver of the economy as the only sector that grew in 2016 in spite of the recession.

Discussing the potential opportunities for domestic resources mobilisation, he stated that Nigeria’s revenue as % of GDP is lowest in world. “Numbers are even worse for 2016 – now below 6%”.

As part of the immediate measures, Gujadhur advised that apart from Fiscal Strategy Paper and fiscal space which must be connected to realistic short and medium terms targets, 2018 budget should be center of Nigeria’s development strategy with Economic Recovery and Growth Plan as basic to put medium term plan together.

On short term basis, he acknowledged the an inter-ministerial team set up by the Honourable Minister for Budget and National Planning to work on transition strategy, but according to him adequate support from the National Assembly and other Ministries, Departments and Agencies remains critical to the success of such process.

As medium term measures, Gujadhur recommended increased non-oil revenues “from very low base” with continual government’s efforts on the tax administration through appropriate legislative driven tax policy.

Prof. Ode Ojowu, a renowned economist also the lead discussant added that the GDP growth reduces ODA flows, and “may not necessarily buffer the shock to specific sectors of ODA intervention like Health and Population”.

He called for more efficient, transparent and accountable budgetary process to provide a cushion to the reduced flow of ODA. “We note that in assessing the impact of development assistance, we should not lose sight of the fact that a reasonable percentage of the funds returns to donor country by way of expatriate consultants and procurement of goods,” Prof. Ojowu noted.

The renowned economist recommended the need for ODA Policy in Nigeria to provide a portal where the activities, funds and location of donors could be accessed and practically collate for effective utilization as donors are guided by their respective country laws, rules, regulations and politics.

“In 2005, the National Planning Commission produced a draft ODA policy for Nigeria, but it did not sail through. The immediate objective of that policy was Nigeria still needs the ODA policy. In the interim, given the co-funding relationship, government can negotiate with development partners to focus their resources in a defined area of priority rather than spreading thinly across sectors,” he explained.

As part of the exit strategy, Prof. Ojowu recommended: domestication of ODA funded activities with significant reduction in major costs such as freight, insurance and other port handling charges; greater cooperation between the Ministry of Budget and National Planning, Ministry of Finance and the benefitting Ministries and Agencies to promote joint ownership of the intervention projects and minimize the sectoral impact of declines in ODA flows; an appropriate population policy; a framework for states to compete for federal government grants and donor support; proactive multi-tier budgeting for greater coordination, efficient budgeting and improved outcomes in place of the focus on federal budgetary allocations.

In order to increase revenues from incomes, he further suggested institutionalized revenue and expenditure tracking; strengthen institutions to fight corruption; adoption of international best practices in tax legislation and administration; comprehensive data to track compliance to Voluntary Assets and Income Declaration Scheme; established centralized database that harmonizes the extant databases, covering international passport, bank verification number (BVN), driver’s license, permanent voter’s card, mobile network sim registration, national identity card.

Examining Nigeria’s financing flows and efficiency for mobilizing domestic resources for sustainable social sector investment, a don at Department of Economics, University of Ibadan, Prof. Abiodun O. Folawewo, observed that total government generated revenue at all levels of government has been grossly inadequate to finance the administrative, socio-economic and developmental responsibilities.

He said: “At the federal level, externally driven revenues (oil-revenue) have dwarfed domestic domestically (non-oil) sourced. At state and local government levels internally generated revenues (IGR) usually fall below accruals from federal allocation accounts.”

He identified available sources of local funding for developmental projects and social sector investment to include: constitutional provisions in terms of taxes, levies and others rates; investment opportunities; and borrowings from local financial market.

The existing gaps in domestic resource mobilisation according to him include inefficiency in tax regime; weak capacity of revenue collection agencies; lack of innovation for resource mobilization; inadequate utilization of current tax law provision; and corruption and revenue leakages/losses.

The university don recommended as ways forward: training and re-training of revenue collection personnel at all government levels; continuation of the current restructuring of revenue and expenditure system of government; innovation in terms of exploring hitherto existing untapped aspect of constitutional provisions; removal of all administrative bottlenecks to the levying and collection of taxes, especially at state and local government levels; motivating and incentivising of citizenry for payment of taxes; mainstreaming of the large the informal sector; public-private partnership; and enactment of law on minimum budget benchmark for social sector funding.


Trump’s aid cuts, a setback to humanitarian supports in Africa

By Abubakar Jimoh

Recently, the humanitarian world was thrown in a sober reflection by a shocking but unpleasant development arising from President of the United States, Donald Trump’s financial decision to cut-down global aid spending by 32 percent as contains in the proposed budget plans for the Fiscal Year 2018.

The decision which was thankfully subjected to extensive criticism by both Republicans and Democrats in the legislature was as well instantly denounced by a global movement—ONE Campaign, which through its works on good governance across globe including Africa has been able to ascertain the detrimental impacts such proposed plans will pose to the existing efforts at successfully combating poverty, diseases and marginalisation, and boosting social investments, especially in Africa.

While the fundamental purpose of humanitarian aid by any government is to complement the efforts of a receiving nation at revitalising her social sector as well as uplifting the poor from extreme poverty, which renders them incapacitated to attain self-reliance and effectively fight diseases, the on-going financial decision by President Trump, if not instantly addressed and reversed will, without doubt result in counter-productivity to the United States’ tracked and commendable records in supporting and sustaining enabling environment for political and socio-economic stability, particularly in Africa.

As a continent with emerging democracies and pervasive inadequate funding for social sector, experiences have revealed that most African governments rely on international aids, which are largely secured from United States through various counterpart-funding agreements to augment their budgets for social sector. A good example is the recent tripartite agreements among some Nigerian state governments, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Dangote Foundation to sustain the fight against dreaded polio virus, which was prevalent in northern part of the country owing to lack of funding for the procurement and administration of vaccines.

Meanwhile, working alongside the aforementioned donors, Global Alliance for Vaccine (GAVI) has been supporting African governments in routine immunisation through procurement and donation of polio vaccines, leading to a major success in the fight against polio virus in various parts of Africa including Nigeria

It is noteworthy to highlight that GAVI receives 79% of its funding from contributions by governments with United States as a key donor significantly contributing no fewer than 9.2% amounting to US$ 800.0 million as at March 2017 that according to GAVI, “will greatly enhance Gavi’s capacity to purchase and deliver life-saving vaccines for children and help in immunizing millions of children in developing countries against vaccine-preventable diseases, which claim 1.5 million lives every year”. The contribution as disclosed in an acknowledgment by GAVI was part of the US$ 814.5 million approved for USAID’s Maternal and Child Health programs for 2017.

Apart from direct financial aid to the governments, the sincere efforts of other agency like USAID has been recognised and widely acknowledged most especially in promoting good governance through its project and activity labelled “Strengthening Advocacy and Civil Engagement” (SACE), which has helped to increase the capacity of citizens across the continent to be more involved in democratic reform processes by influencing institutions whose function are to serve public interests.

Not only have funds from USAID assisted in enhancing participation of marginalized populations — such as women, youth, and the disabled — and emphasizing the importance of leadership and innovation, the agency is famous in addressing developmental challenges in Nigeria by promoting political and socio-economic stability through improved social services, transparent and responsive government, and humanitarian assistance to the crises affected zone like North Eastern part of the country.

In 2011, a report entitled “U.S. Foreign Assistance to Sub-Saharan Africa: The FY2012 Request” published by Congressional Research Service, reveals a total bilateral U.S. development assistance from USAID and the State Department to sub-Saharan Africa amounting to an estimated $7.08 billion in 2012 as against $1.94 billion in 2002 Financial Year. The rapid increase in development assistance which was later explained in another corresponding report titled “Overview of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)” by Center for Global Development, was largely driven by global health spending, which concentrates on resources to combat the fast spreading HIV/AIDS primarily to 14 countries, 12 of which are in sub-Saharan Africa.

Consequently, another major success has been recorded in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the region. An instance is Nigeria which in a 2016 report entitled “Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases: Where we are” published by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) was applauded for the falling trend in HIV/AIDS satisfying the criteria for the attainment of Goal 6 of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Similarly, while HIV and AIDS have had a significant negative impact on life expectancy in South Africa, leaving many families and children economically vulnerable and often socially stigmatized, it has received the largest Anti-Retroviral Therapy programme in the world through the effort of United States PEPFAR and has contributed towards stabilizing HIV prevalence in Africa. This fact was buttressed in another study by the Science Desk of National Public Radio (NPR) that “PEPFAR, really, has saved a huge number of people’s lives. This has been one of the most effective public health inventions outside of clean running water, decent nutrition and vaccine programs. This has made an unbelievable difference”.

Moreover, of $48 billion to PEPFAR in 2008, $500 million was allocated to fight HIV/AIDS in Kenya. In fact, single biggest change for public health in Kenya was according to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Kenya, achieved by the founding of PEPFAR.

It is also important to mention that in 2013, following a political crisis that claimed tens of thousands of South Sudanese lives and left about 4 million displaced, USAID had charted a strategy that increased humanitarian assistance and support for fundamental needs including access to water, health and education services. With continued support through direct service delivery and technical assistance, the agency has helped in saving South Sudan from deteriorating into famine conditions in addition to significant progress recorded in the quality, coverage, and impact of the national HIV/AIDS response.

Additionally, these facts were reiterated and highlighted when in Fiscal Year 2015 report, the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) could not conceal but to state that through available funds, USAID sustained provision of critical, life-saving assistance in response to conflict and displacement in South Sudan and Sudan’s Darfur Region; met conflict-related needs in the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Somalia; provided nutrition assistance in Kenya; and supported flood-affected communities in Madagascar, Malawi, and Mozambique.

The opposite of this backdrop is a clear indication of horrific conditions Africans will be subjected should President Trump get his proposed plans passed. We therefore call for a rethink on the proposed financial plans by President Trump.


Nigeria: North West region is faced with serious human resource gaps in the health sector



Civil Society Legislative Advocacy Centre (CISLAC) organized a One-day Executive and Media Roundtable on Maternal Health. The Roundtable aimed at bringing Katsina State’s executives, civil society and the media under one roof to brainstorm on necessary action for timely release and effective implementation of maternal and child health budget in the state for efficient intervention and maximum impacts on the citizens. The meeting drew about 15 participants representing Ministries of Health, Budget and Economic Planning, Education and Women Affairs, Civil Society Organizations, and the Media. After exhaustive deliberations on various thematic issues, the following observations and recommendations were made:


  1. While adequate, accessible and affordable maternal and child is key to the development, survival and growth of every society, North West region is faced with serious human resource gaps in the health sector with merely 507 out of required 4835 midwifes in Katsina state.
  2. Inter-ministerial collaboration among the State Ministries of Heath, Information, Education and Women Affairs remains paramount to effective and concerted intervention on maternal and child health in Katsina state.
  3. Impending factors such as information accessibility, lack of fund, capacity gaps and restrictive policies hamper investigative journalism, policy and public awareness on maternal and child health.
  4. In 2017 Appropriation Act, Katsina State Government has allocated 8.97% (out of 15% Abuja Declaration) to the health sector, which is an increase from the previous years.
  5. Under-performance in part of the established Budget Monitoring and Tracking Committee in the State is an impeding challenge to budget performance monitoring and evaluation.
  6. Inadequate supervision of health sector, capacity gaps among health workers, lopsidedness in human resource deployment paves ways for over-concentration of health care workers in the urban areas at the expense of rural counterparts hence, impeding accessibility to maternal and child health services.
  7. Katsina State has received its share of the World Bank’s “Save 1 million Lives” fund and established implementation Committee with maternal and child as a key priority for intervention.


  1. Mainstreaming maternal and child health as multi-sectoral issues through prioritized efforts among various Ministries in galvanizing advocacy for maternal and child health.
  2. Proactive media with appreciable curiosity through prioritized resource utilization to engage investigative journalism, and raise policy and public awareness on maternal health budget allocation, release and implementation.
  3. Capacity building for health reporters on investigative journalism on maternal and child health issues through training and retraining programmes; and leveraging International Days to amplify policy and public awareness on maternal and child health.
  4. Enhanced legislative advocacy on the domestication of National Health Act 2014 and translation of existing health policies into legislation to promote sustainable intervention on maternal and child health.
  5. Addressing human resource gaps through adequate funding and supervision, engagement of sufficient and qualified health workers with appropriate incentives to bridge human resource gaps, especially in the rural areas.
  6. Evidence-based advocacy by civil society groups in the state to understand, identify relevant facts and figures to effectively advocate and engage policy and legislative process on maternal and child health.
  7. Well-packaged and persistent maternal health programmes by the media through persistent and innovative coverage and reportage that captivate policy, legislative and public attention towards maternal and child health.
  8. Full capacity deployment and utilization of Media and Public Relations Department of various Ministries to encourage timely and appropriate information dissemination.
  9. Realistic health budget composition through appropriate consultation with communities and relevant stakeholders by the media and civil society groups to promote effective implementation.

Action points:

  • Enlightenment advocacy to the traditional and religious leaders on maternal and child health issues by the media and civil society groups.
  • Utilize Bill Board to galvanize issues on maternal and child health.
  • Issue based approach to maternal and child health by the media.
  • Incorporate State Ministry of Information and National Orientation Agency to catalyze public awareness on maternal health.
  • Increase allocation to health sector.
  • Appropriate documentation of coverage and reportage to ease data accessibility and utilization.


  1. Auwal Ibrahim Musa (Rafsanjani)

Executive Director, CISLAC

  1. Ibrahim Maiwada

Katsina State Ministry of Health

  1. Muhammad Kabir Barau

Katsina Ministry of Budget and Economic Planning

  1. Hajara B. Kankara

Katsina State Ministry of Education

  1. Ibrahim Sogiyi

State Primary Health care Development Agency

  1. Abdulaziz Imam Suleiman

Katsina State Ministry of Women Affairs

  1. Sabiu Laidi

Health Reform Foundation of Nigeria (HERFON)

  1. Buhari Ahmed Badi

Katsina State Radio

After Nuhu Ribadu What Next?


It is no more news that the Federal Government has ordered the National Institute of Strategic Studies (NIPSS) to release the certificate of graduation of the institute to Mallam Nuhu Ribadu former boss of Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC). What is therefore the news is the alleged corrupt practices by Ribadu while he was the boss of the anti-corruption body.

From the media, Ribadu was said to have bought choice properties in Dubai, United Arab Emirates; in the British cities of Leeds and Chelsea as well as in Abuja’s posh Maitama District while he was boss of the anti-grant agency. The information came from the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).

In addition to this, the report added that the former boss also failed to declare his assets at the Code of Conduct Bureau in violation of the requirement for all public officers. He was also accused of presiding over the sale of some property that were confiscated by the agency from the owners for investigation.

Before this development, there was allegation of disappearance or missing file from the custody of Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC) on former governors under investigation. The public officers were said to have been investigated during the era of Ribadu but were not handed over to the new management under Farida Waziri.

The said missing files were to contain petitions against prominent personalities which include former president, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. It was this development that made the current chairman of EFCC, Mrs. Farida Waziri to recently disclose that former President Olusegun Obasanjo has no case to answer concerning the issue of corruption and other related offences during his tenure.

It was after this disclosure that many alleged cover-up and some non-governmental organisations disclosed that they had submitted petitions to Mallam Nuhu Ribadu when he was EFCC boss but without giving their petitions the attention.

I think the present EFCC can now take appropriate actions on fresh petitions submitted by Coalition Against Corrupt government officials.

Many have argued that there was no way Ribadu could have taken on the President on corrupt practices because of the fact that he appointed him into the position. Some even alleged that the rapid promotion of Nuhu Ribadu from Assistant Commissioner of police to Assistant Inspector General of Police within few years was bribery in disguise to protect the president and his cronies from prosecution.

Even if he had fear of losing his job, at the end of Obasanjo’s tenure he could have, as an intelligent officer, submit some of the petitions and documents to the in-coming new boss of EFCC since everybody wants the probing of the Obasanjo’s administration.

If files of similar public officers, tagged as corrupt like former governors and former Inspector General of Police, Tafa Balogun who suffered humiliation during their investigation during the tenure of Mallam Ribadu were not missing in EFCC, definitely those containing prominent personalities like Chief Obasanjo and his daughter, Mrs. Iyabo Bello Obasanjo should not be missing. And if so it must be recovered immediately.

Anyway, what a man sowed shall he ripe. The ongoing battle against Mallam Ribadu will serve as a lesson, a life-time experience to all other public officers who because of their positions and the power they weighted from an administration look the other way and cover the negative side of their bosses, a day of reckoning would surely come. More importantly for those who are used mischievously to intimidate their fellow country men and women in the society. It is hoped that the current chairman of EFCC, Mrs. Waziri would have learnt from the past experiences of her predecessor.

Therefore, in discharging its duties, the EFCC should equally consider and respond to all corruption petition files submitted to it. This will enable the commission to achieve its objectives and recover its lost glory as an anti-corruption agency.

Abubakar Jimoh